Propionate oxaloacetate

Global control of gluconeogenesis is mediated by glucagon ( released when blood glucose is low ); it triggers phosphorylation of enzymes and regulatory proteins by Protein Kinase A (a cyclic AMP regulated kinase) resulting in inhibition of glycolysis and stimulation of gluconeogenesis. Recent studies have shown that the absence of hepatic glucose production has no major effect on the control of fasting plasma glucose concentration. Compensatory induction of gluconeogenesis occurs in the kidneys and intestine, driven by glucagon , glucocorticoids , and acidosis. [28]

If OAA is converted to PEP by mitochondrial PEPCK, it is transported to the cytosol where it is a direct substrate for gluconeogenesis and nothing further is required. Transamination of OAA to aspartate allows the aspartate to be transported to the cytosol where the reverse transamination occurs yielding cytosolic OAA. This transamination reaction requires continuous transport of glutamate into, and 2-oxoglutatrate (α-ketoglutarate) out of, the mitochondrion. Therefore, this process is limited by the availability of these other substrates. Either of these latter two reactions will predominate when the substrate for gluconeogenesis is lactate. Whether mitochondrial decarboxylation or transamination occurs is a function of the availability of PEPCK or transamination intermediates.

11. Fatty Acid Oxidation in Diabetics When the acetyl-CoA produced during β oxidation in the liver exceeds the capacity of the citric acid cycle, the excess acetyl-CoA reacts to form the ketone bodies acetoacetate, D -β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. This condition exists in cases of severe diabetes because the patient's tissues cannot use glucose; they oxidize large amounts of fatty acids instead. Although acetyl-CoA is not toxic, the mitochondrion must divert the acetyl-CoA to ketone bodies. Why? How does this diversion solve the problem?

Propionate oxaloacetate

propionate oxaloacetate

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