Propionate citric acid cycle

Recent work has demonstrated an important link between intermediates of the citric acid cycle and the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors ( HIF ). HIF plays a role in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis, and is a transcription factor that targets angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, glucose utilization, iron transport and apoptosis. HIF is synthesized consititutively, and hydroxylation of at least one of two critical proline residues mediates their interaction with the von Hippel Lindau E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which targets them for rapid degradation. This reaction is catalysed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases . Fumarate and succinate have been identified as potent inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylases, thus leading to the stabilisation of HIF. [31]

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Propionate citric acid cycle

propionate citric acid cycle

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