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It has been suggested that snakes evolved the mechanisms necessary for venom formation and delivery sometime during the Miocene epoch.  During the mid- Tertiary , most snakes were large ambush predators belonging to the superfamily Henophidia , which use constriction to kill their prey. As open grasslands replaced forested areas in parts of the world, some snake families evolved to become smaller and thus more agile. However, subduing and killing prey became more difficult for the smaller snakes, leading to the evolution of snake venom.  Other research on Toxicofera , a hypothetical clade thought to be ancestral to most living reptiles, suggests an earlier time frame for the evolution of snake venom, possibly to the order of tens of millions of years, during the Late Cretaceous . 
In Europe and Central Asia, bold adaptive action is needed across many policy areas to support active, healthy, and productive aging. These areas include much more than reforming the intergenerational transfer and pension systems: they encompass, among others, shifting health systems toward preventive care, primary care, and more diagnostics; reforming educational systems to bolster the cognitive skills needed for productive employment along longer working lives; and reforming labor market institutions to allow women to reconcile family and career goals and older people to work more flexible hours.